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Approximate free-air equivalence factors, k pk x and k, for common military explosives are given in Table B. In a true, free-field explosion, as the energy of the expanding gases becomes dissipated, so their momentum falls and they begin to contract. Life cycle A standard is reviewed every 5 years 00 Preliminary. The above directions assume such an orientation with the test specimen mounted vertically.
The length and location of any openings in the test specimens and pullout of the glazing from the test frame shall be measured and recorded. Glazing that has received an air-blast classification and rating is suitable for use in blast-resistant applications only for blasts of comparable characteristics and only if installed in a properly designed frame.
Table 1 — Hazard-rating criteria for arena tests Hazard rating Hazard-rating description Definition A No break The glazing is observed not to fracture and there is no visible damage to the glazing system. Also, there are no more than three rateable perforations or indents anywhere in the witness panel, and any fragments on the floor between 1 m and 3 m from the interior face of the specimen have a sum total united dimension of mm or less.
If they are different, the calculation should weight the number of readings for each. The board shall be in one or two layers of combined thickness at least 35 mm, mounted in a frame capable of remaining in place even if forcibly impacted by failed pieces of the test specimen.
The free-field pressure transducer shall be located at least 5 m or the width of the reaction structure, whichever is greater, from any reaction structure and at the same horizontal distance from the high-explosive charge as the centre of the glazing.
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Find Similar Items This product falls into the following categories. Test and classification for arena air-blast loading. Ethiopian Standards are approved by the 1693 Standardization Council and are kept under continuous review after publication and updated regularly to take account of latest scientific and technological changes.
The explosive composition, shape, mass, height and location shall be adjusted to meet these required parameters 169333 the tolerances allowed. Kso equivalence factors for explosives vary with charge size, standoff and test conditions. Range test  EN 2Glass in building — Security glazing — Testing and classification of resistance against explosion pressure  Johnson, N.
Seven standard isoo simulating vehicle bombs and seven standard blasts simulating smaller satchel bombs that can be used to classify glazing performance are incorporated in this International Standard and cover a broad range of blast parameters. Your basket is empty. The standard is identical with ISO For example, classification SB4 C applies to a test in which a standard blast having peak air-blast pressure of kPa and positive phase impulse of kPa-ms resulted in damage to the glazing resulting in hazard rating C.
The location and description of all parts of the specimen shall be recorded, whether ieo in the frame or fallen inside or outside, with identification of inner and outer leaves of glass where appropriate. The first is intended for use with glazing designed to protect against vehicle bombs and is iao on kg TNT trinitrotoluene equivalent blasts. Design based on knowledge of the air-blast resistance reduces the risk of personal injury.
For further information on assessing the blast relative to the 169933 of the reaction structure, tests, criteria and effects on glazing, see Reference . To accommodate high-speed photography, a hole no is than mm x mm may be made in the top or bottom corner of the witness panel within an area bounded by one third of the height and width of the panel.
Examples of minimum sizes of glass particles classed as fragments are provided in Annex D informative. A number shall be assigned sio each test specimen and shall be marked accordingly. It is the responsibility of the testing agency to achieve the classification-blast values by selection of appropriate combinations of frame size, charge mass, charge composition and standoff, taking into account other test-site conditions such as altitude and hardness of the ground surface.
Contact us at the following address. This results in a sudden release of energy that causes the air to be highly compressed and driven at supersonic speeds, during which air molecules cannot respond as they would to a normal input of energy. Ethiopian Standards The Ethiopian Standards are developed by national technical committees which are composed of different stakeholders consisting of educational Institutions, research institutes, government organizations, certification, inspection, and testing organizations, regulatory bodies, consumer association etc.
ESA has 169333 copyright 166933 all its publications. The protection afforded against a blast by a single item of glazing depends not only upon the glazing but also upon the manner in which it is attached to the structure in which it is mounted.
An illustration of the calculation of tolerance from actual blasts is given in Clause B. For the purpose of this Ethiopian Standardthe adopted text shall be modified as follows.
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Final text received or FDIS registered for formal approval. Standard Number ISO Shock tube  ENWindows, doors and shutters — Explosion resistance — Requirements and classification — Part 2: Also, there are 10 or fewer rateable perforations in the area of the vertical izo panel higher than 0,5 m above the floor and none of the io penetrate more than 12 mm.
This reference and charts show the test-classification blast values applicable to small-reaction structures related to a grid of calculated values for large facades. Mean peak air-blast pressure and mean positive-phase impulse values, computed from recordings by the air-blast transducers mounted as defined in 6.
Worldwide Standards We can source any standard from anywhere in the world. The blast values given are each derived from the mean values of several blast gauges distributed across a face area representing a test specimen of size 1,6 m x 1,3 m; set with bottom edge at 0,5 m above ground within a concrete transducer wall representing a test frame of size 2,4 m x 2,4 m.
For example, classification code EXV25 C applies to a test in which a standard blast having peak air-blast pressure of 80 kPa and positive phase impulse of kPa-ms resulted is damage to the glazing resulting in hazard rating C. The target initially experiences what is termed a peak reflected pressure, denoted P maxorP rwhich is, strictly speaking, the overpressure above ambient.
The frame and ios materials shall be verified to comply with the manufacturer’s specifications. The high explosive shall then be armed in a manner to maximize safety of personnel in the event of accidental discharge of the explosive during the arming procedure.
All pressure transducers shall be attached to the data-acquisition system and tested prior to the blast to verify proper operation. Isp order to aid data collection, this definition is quantified in Table D. For classification purposes, glazing shall be mounted in the frame defined in 6.
This is in order to avoid excessive reductions in reflected impulse that arise owing to the effects of blast clearing from the edges of small targets. The second is intended for use with glazing designed to protect against smaller hand- carried satchel bombs. The equivalent mass and the equivalence factor, k, of an explosive based on blast pressure, k por impulse, k v varies at different pressure levels.